Core Curriculum

The UKRTCM Core Curriculum covers all subject areas involved in the professional practice of Tui na. This is to ensure that its Practitioner Members have a thorough grounding in Traditional Chinese Medicine theory and Western sciences (anatomy, physiology, pathology), as well as a high level of competence in the application of Tui na techniques and a minimum of 70 hours supervised clinical practice.

You can download a copy of this curriculum – Core Curriculum (.pdf 134.71 KB)

Main subject categories

  1. Tui na theory
  2. Tui na techniques
  3. Application of ancillary therapies and external herbal massage media
  4. Tui na clinical practice
  5. Qi gong
  6. Chinese medicine theory/channel theory
  7. Western sciences
  8. Meridians, point location and functions
  9. Practitioner development

1. Tui na theory

1.1 Historical development of Tui na 1.2 General principles: The use and application of therapeutic manual skills (shou fa) The use of intention (yi nian) The importance of posture and co-ordination 1.3 Diagnostic skills, including observation and palpation 1.4 Treating deficiency (xu) and excess (shi) 1.5 Yin and Yang styles of practice and the benefits of both

2. Tui na techniques

Basic techniques Practitioners must be able to competently apply a minimum of 12 standard basic techniques from the list below and have a thorough understanding of their physical applications, therapeutic actions and clinical indications.

2.1 Tui fa – pushing 2.2 Rou fa – kneading 2.3 An fa – pressing 2.4 Mo fa – round rubbing 2.5 Na fa – grasping 2.6 Gun fa – rolling 2.7 Yi Zhi Chan Tui fa – one finger meditation 2.8 Cuo fa – rub rolling 2.9 Ji fa – chopping 2.10 Pai fa -knocking 2.11 Ca fa – scrubbing 2.12 Ma fa – wiping 2.13 Gua fa – scratching/scraping 2.14 Nian fa – squeezing twisting 2.15 Ji dian fa – digital striking 2.16 Dou fa – shaking 2.17 Tan bo fa – plucking 2.18 Ya fa – suppressing 2.19 Zhen fa – vibrating 2.20 Che fa – squeezing tweaking 2.21 Tai ji hands

Additional techniques

i) Common compound techniques Practitioners must be able to apply a range of common compound techniques and have a thorough understanding of their physical application, therapeutic actions and clinical indications. Therapeutically the most important are:

2.22 Compound techniques using Na fa as the root technique 2.23 Compound techniques using Rou fa as the root technique

ii) Co-ordinated techniques Practitioners must be able to apply a range of co-ordinated techniques and have a thorough understanding of their physical application, therapeutic actions and clinical indications. Examples include: Na fa (grasping) and Rou fa (kneading) An fa (pressing) and Mo fa (round rubbing) Gun fa (rolling) and An fa (pressing)

iii) Passive movements Practitioners must be able to apply a range of passive movements and end of range stretches and have a thorough understanding of their physical application, therapeutic actions, clinical indications and contra-indications. The most important are: 2.24 Yao fa – rotating 2.25 Ban fa – pressing twisting 2.26 Ba shen fa – stretching

Areas treated Tui na techniques and methods applied as appropriate to the following areas of the body: Head Face Neck and nape Back Chest and hypochondria Abdomen Upper limb Lower limb

3. The application of ancillary therapies and external herbal massage media

Physical application, therapeutic effects and clinical indications and contra-indications of the following:

3.1 Moxibustion, including: stick moxa, direct and indirect use of moxa cones 3.2 Cupping 3.3 Gua sha 3.4 Uses of a range of external massage media (e.g. toasted sesame oil, red flower oil, white flower oil, woodlock oil)

4. Tui na clinical practice

4.1 Ability to evaluate patients and diagnose using the techniques of questioning, observation and physical examination, including tongue and pulse 4.2 Ability to formulate an appropriate diagnosis and treatment principle using Chinese and Western medical theory where appropriate 4.3 Ability to administer an effective and appropriate Tui na treatment based on differentiation of disease Categories of disease to include: Respiratory disease Digestive disease Gynecological disease Headaches Circulatory disorders Musculo-skeletal disease Bi syndrome Wei syndrome Emotional/mental disorders 4.4 Ability to assess the progress of the patient, their condition and diagnosis and to re- evaluate the treatment accordingly 4.5 Management of the therapeutic relationship within a variety of contexts 4.6 Awareness of ethical issues, professional conduct and standards in daily practice 4.7 Awareness of safe practice and of when and how to refer to other specialists 4.8 Ability to keep complete and up-to-date case notes on each patient 4.9 First aid certificate – to be renewed every three years 4.10 Practitioners must have completed an absolute minimum of 70 hours supervised clinical practice. ‘Supervised’ in this context means ‘has treated patients under the observation of experienced and appropriately Web design Dallas qualified practitioners’

5. Qi gong

5.1 A knowledge of the place of qi gong in the context of Chinese medicine and Tui na treatment 5.2 An understanding of the role of qi gong in self cultivation and personal and practitioner development 5.3 Knowledge of a range of styles of qi gong and their use in a therapeutic situation Practitioners must have completed a minimum of 26 hours of qi gong training

6. Chinese medicine theory

6.1 Historical development of Chinese medicine 6.2 Context and practice of Chinese medicine in the world today 6.3 Yin Yang theory 6.4 Wu Xing theory 6.5 Vital substances (Jing, Shen, Qi, Xue and Jinye) 6.6 Functions of the organ systems (Zangfu) 6.7 The curious/extraordinary organs 6.8 The causes of disease (internal and external) 6.9 Disease pattern identification according to the eight principles 6.10 Disease pattern identification according to Qi, Xue and Jinye 6.11 Disease pattern identification according to the Zangfu 6.12 The four methods of diagnosis, including the ten questions, tongue and pulse, observation and palpation skills 6.13 Taking and presenting a case history: aetiology, pathology, diagnosis, principle and method of treatment (will also include taking an account of Western medical history, medication/supplements/herbs, personal details, GP details, obtaining consent for treatment, researching cases, understanding limitations of knowledge)

7. Meridians, point location and functions

7.1 The eight extraordinary vessels (Qi jing ba mai) 7.2 The six divisions (Liu jing) 7.3 Meridian and channel pathways (Jing luo), superficial and deep, including divergent and sinew channels 7.4 Classification of points – of the qi jing ba mai and the jing luo 7.5 Knowledge of a broad range of points from the 12 primary meridians, including their location and function, clinical uses and contra-indications (points must include categories mentioned in 7.4) 7.6 The meaning of the Chinese names of the main points

8. Western sciences

Anatomy 8.1 Skeletal system – names and location of all bones 8.2 Joints – types and basic structure of joints, in particular synovial joints and their ranges of movement 8.3 Connective tissue – composition and most important types (ligaments, tendons, fascia, cartilage, bone) 8.4 Muscular system – i) The three types of muscles and where they are found ii) Functional inter-relationship of muscles (agonist/antagonist, synergist and fixators) iii) Names and location of all major muscles, their origin and insertion

Physiology Anatomy and function of the following: 8.5 Cardiovascular system 8.6 Lymphatic system 8.7 Respiratory system 8.8 Digestive system 8.9 Urinary system 8.10 Nervous system 8.11 Endocrine system 8.12 Reproductive system 8.13 Sensory organs

Pathology Under the following categories, the most commonly encountered conditions should be known. This would involve a definition of the condition, with knowledge of the main organ and/or systems involved and the main symptoms that arise. For example: hypothyroidism – a subnormal activity of the thyroid gland; adult onset symptoms are physical and mental slowing, undue sensitivity to cold, slowing of the pulse, weight gain and coarsening of the skin.

8.14 Diseases of the integumentary system (e.g. psoriasis, shingles, acne) 8.15 Diseases of the skeletal system (e.g. osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, scoliosis) 8.16 Diseases of the muscular system (e.g. frozen shoulder, bursitis, hernia) 8.17 Blood disorders (e.g. anaemia, haemophilia) 8.18 Diseases of the cardiovascular system (e.g. aneurism, hypertension) 8.19 Diseases of the respiratory system (e.g. asthma, pneumonia, sinusitis) 8.20 Diseases of the gastrointestinal system (e.g. appendicitis, IBS, gallstones) 8.21 Diseases of the renal system (e.g. cystitis, urethritis, kidney stones) 8.22 Diseases of the endocrine system (e.g. diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism) 8.23 Diseases of the nervous system (e.g. epilepsy, facial palsy, sciatica) 8.24 Diseases of the ear and eye (e.g. Meniere’s disease, conjunctivitis) 8.25 Diseases of the female reproductive system (e.g. dysmenorrhoea, fibroids) 8.26 Diseases of the male reproductive system (e.g. impotence, infertility) 8.27 Diseases of the lymphatic and immune system (e.g. AIDS, glandular fever) 8.28 Red flags – i.e. cases where clients should be advised to seek orthodox medicine

9. Practitioner development

We would expect the Tui na practitioner to be familiar with the following: 9.1 The use of reflective practice and a positive, problem solving approach as part of the therapeutic relationship and professional practice 9.2 Building rapport and effective and appropriate communication with the patient 9.3 Interpretation and debate of the moral and ethical issues surrounding the delivery of health care in the private and public sectors 9.4 Keeping and retaining clear, well-ordered notes